On The Genera of Being , The Second Περι Tov Γενῶὼν Tov Ovtoc Δεύτερον

1. Then since we have spoken about those that are considered to be The Ten Genera , de Ere λεγομενῶν περι τῶν EMEOKENTOL SEK YEVOV, and since we have also spoken about those who bring all Beings into One Genus by positing KOU ELPNTAL περι τῶν KYOVTWV TA TAVTH εἰς EV γένος TLIHELEVMV Four Species as if they were under The One , then it will follow for us to say , how in the world TETTAPH ELON] OLOV VIO TOEV, SEQVEIN ἀκολοῦθεν εἰπεῖν, TL ποτε the established opinions/reputations about these appear to us , while trying to Lead us back to the TOA SOKOVVTA περι TOVTOV φαϊνεται ἡμῖν TELPMLEVOLG ἀναγεῖν ἡμῖν εἰς τὴν doctrine of Plato . Thus on the one hand, if it was necessary to posit that The Being , is One , dsogav Πλατῶνος. ovv μὲν ει εδει τιθεσθαι το ον εν, then there would be no need to investigate , whether or not there is One Genus over All , nor if αν οὐδεν εδει ζητειν, ει οὔτ᾽ εν YEVOG ETL πασιν, οὔτε EL the Genera cannot be posited under one , nor if there are Causes , nor if the Causes and the yevy| μη vo’ εν, οὔτ᾽ EL αρχας, , OVTE EL TAG APYAG και Genera must be posited to be The Selves , nor if the Genera and the Causes are The Selves , or if γεν δεῖ τιθεσθαι τας αὐτας, οὔτε εἰ τὰ γένῃ καὶ ἀρχὰς TAALTA, on the one hand , All the Causes are also Genera , while on the other hand , the Genera are not μεν απασας τας ἀαρχας καὶ γενῆ, δὲ τα γενῆ οὐκ All Causes , or the other way round , or if in each group some Causes are also Genera and some apxac,n OVATAALV , εφ’ EKOATEPMV τινας HEV ἀαρχας καὶ YEVN καὶ TIVO Genera are also Causes , or if in one group all of the others are also other , but in the other group γενΊ καὶ αἀρχᾶς, EML μεν παντα TOV ETEPWV καὶ θατερα, δὲ ETL only some of the others are also other. But since we maintain that The Being , is not One -- TIVO τῶν ETEPMV καὶ OOTEPA. SE EMEL φαμεν το ον οὐχ ἕν - both Plato and others have explained the reason why this is 50 -- and so it becomes , equally καὶ Πλατῶνι καὶ ETEPOLG = ELPTTOLL διοτι τῶ δὲ-- καὶ γίγνεται ισῶὼς necessary to enquire about these matters before setting down in the middle , what number ἀναγκαῖον ἐπισκέψασθαι περι TOUTMV TPOTEPOV θεντας εἰς μέσον, τινὰ αἀριθμον we say there are and in what way . Therefore , since we are enquiring about The Being or Aeyouev καὶ πῶς. ουν επει ζητοῦμεν περι τοῦ οντος about The Real Beings , it is necessary to first Distinguish between them in the following way . τῶν OVTOV , ἀναγκαῖον πρῶτον διελεσθε παρ᾽ αὕτοις ταδὲ, First , what we say is The Being , in regards to which the investigation would presently be τε τι λέγομεν =TOOV , περι οὐ σκέψις νυνι Correctly brought into being , and secondly , what others opine Being to be , thus we say that ορθως γινοῖτο, τε μὲν τι OAAOIG SOKEL ον εἰναι, δὲ λέγομεν (they opine) Self is coming to be , but never Truly Is . Thus one must Intellect these Genera as QUVTO γινομξνον ELVA , δε OVSETOTE OVTMSG OV. dE SEL νοεῖν ταῦτα being Distinct from one another , not as if there was a certain genus that was divided into these , διηρημενα απ’ AAANAM@V οὐχ WS τι γένους TOD διηρημενοῦ εις ταῦτα,

nor to think that Plato made a division in this way . For it is absurd to posit The Being ουδ᾽ οἴεσθαι Tov Πλατῶνα πεποιήκεναι OvtTMs . Tap γελοῖον θεσθαι TO OV with that which Is not under one genus , just as if someone were to posit Socrates and his τῶ οντι μη vd’ εν ὥσπερ τις θειτο LOKPATNH καὶ τουτοῦυ image under the same genus . For “to Distinguish” in this place , is to Posit that which is τὴν ELKOVA VIO TO ALTO. γὰρ TO ’᾽διελεσθαι’ ἐνταῦθα εστι θειναι το marked-off by boundaries and set-apart , and to say that what appears to be Being , is not Being , αφορισαι καὶ XWPIG, καὶ εἰπεῖν TO δοξαν εἰναι ον ELVOL ODK OV , by pointing-out to them that That which Is Truly Being is something else . And by prefixing ὡς VTOSELEAVTH αὐτοις τὸ αληθως ον €lVOL GQAAO . καὶ προστιθεις The “Always” to The Being he indicated , that The Being must be of such a kind, so as το OEL’ τῷ OVTL vmEdElEEV, ὡς TOOV SELELVOL τοιοῦτον, οἷον to “Never” falsify The Nature of The Being . Surely then , by speaking about This Being , μηδεποτε ψευδεσθαι τὴν OVOLV TOD OVTOG. δὴ λέγοντες περι TOVTOD TOD OVTOG we must also consider about This Being that It is not-One ; then afterwards , if it seems proper , καὶ σκεψομεθα περι TOVTOV OVTOG MG OLXEVOG: SE VOTEPOV , εἰ SOKEl , we shall also say something about generation and becoming and the perceptible Kosmos . ἐροῦμεν και τι περι γένεσεῶς καὶ τοῦ YLVOLEVOV καὶ αἰσθητου κοσμου.

2. Therefore , since we say that That which Is , is not-One , then is It a certain Number OvDV Emet φαμεν OVX EV APA TIVO αριθμον

or infinite ? For surely then how do we mean That which Is not-One ? Or do we mean that It Is

αἀπεῖρον ; yap δη πῶς το οὐχ εν; Aeyouev

at the same time One and Many, and that It is a Many-Colored One by Containing Its Many αμα εν καὶ TOAAG , καὶ τι ποικιλὸν εν EXOV ταπολλὰ

in One . So then it is necessary that This which is One in this way , must either Be One

ElIG EV. τοιῦυν αναγκη τοῦτο TO ἕν οὕτως η ELVOLL EV

by Being The Genus , or then , by The Beings Being Ideas/Species/Kinds of Self , by which

TW γένει δ᾽ TO οντὰ εἰδή αὐτου, οιἰς It Is Many and One ; or that there be more Genera than One , but that All The Genera TOAAM καὶ EV, πλειὼ γένη evoc, de τὰ πανταὰ be under One Genus , or on the one hand , that there are Genera aplenty , but on the other hand , vo’ εν ,. μεν γενῇ πλειω δε

that no other be under another , but that each of those contained by Self , whether they are lesser

UNSEV αλλο VT’ ἀλλο, AAA’ EKAGTOV τῶν περιεκτικὸν DI’ αὐτο, ELTE OVTOV EAATTOVOV

Genera or Species of Selves and with many individuals under them , and so all together bring to

γενῶν ELOMV AVLTOV καὶ ατομῶν VIO TOVTOIG, καὶ αἀπᾶντὰ εἰς

Completion One Nature , The Intelligible Kosmos , which we surely call The Being ;


The Underlying Structure that is composed out of All. Surely then, if this is so , then These

TV σύυστασιν ειναῖ εκ TOVTOV . én ELTOVTO ταῦτα

must not only be Genera , but They must at-once also be Causes that belong to The Being .

οὐ μονον ειναι γένη, CAA αμὰ καὶ APYAG VAAPXELV του οντος,

On the one hand , there must be Genera , because there are other lesser genera under Them and μεν γενῆ, OTL αλλα ἐλάττω γενῆ VIE? αὐτὰ καὶ

after this species and many individuals ; but on the other hand , there must be Causes , if The

μετα τοῦτο ELEN καὶ ατομαὰ : de αρχας το

Being is thus composed of Many and The Whole arises out of These (Par 142A-E) . If then

ον οὕτῶὼς EK πολλῶν καὶ TOOAOV VIAAPXEL EK τουτῶν . εἰ μεντοι on the one hand , there were Numerous Principles out of which , The All was made , and so μεν Ὧν πλειω εξ ὧν, τοπαν εποιξι on the other hand , if The Wholes came together not having anything else under Selves , then δε τὰ ολὰ ODVEABOVTA ODKEXOVTA αλλο υπ᾽ ALTO, LEV

They would be Causes , but would not be Genera ; such as if someone made the sense

αν σαν αἀρχαι,δὲ av οὐκ γενῆ: οἷον εἰ TIC εποῖει TO αἱσ- world out of the four elements , fire and such as these : for these would be causes , but not πθητον EK τεσσαρῶν , NVPOG καὶ τῶν TOLOVTOV : γὰρ ταῦτα AV NOaV apxo , dE OD genera . Unless genus is used like a homonym ; so then by saying that they are a kind of genera ,

γένῃ : εἰ UN TO γένος ομωνυμῶς . τοιῖνῦν λέγοντες EVOL TIVO γένῃ and that these same genera are also causes ; accordingly then , on the one hand shall we mix TO αὐτὰ γενΏ καὶ αρχᾶς, αρα μεν μιγνυντες

together All the genera with each other , and each cause along with those under selves , and thus OMOD τὰ παντα TH γένη ἀλλήλοις, EKOKOTOV ETA τῶν υπ᾽αῦυτα, δ᾽ shall we make and shall we complete the whole by mixing together everything ? But then TOLOVHEV καὶ ONOTEAODLEV TO OAOV OVYKPAOLV OTAVTOV ; AAO each one/everyone will be potential/inactive , not actual/active , nor will the Self of each one EKQAGTOV EOTOL δυναμει ,ODK EVEPyELa οὐδὲ ALTO EKMHOTOD be in a Pure State . So then shall we let the genera go and let them mix with each and all ? καθαρον . GAAAM EQOOLEV TH γένη δὲ ταμιξομεν καθεκαστον ; What then , will be The Genera By-Themselves ? Or will they also be By-Themselves and TIVO OVV EOTOL τα γενῆ εφ᾽ αὐτῶν ; KOAKELVOEOTOL Eb’ AVTMV KOL Pure , and their mixed-up members not banish Selves ? And how can this be ? Or rather καθαροα,, KAL TOA μιίχθεντὰ οὔκ απολεῖ αΥὐτα ; καὶ πῶς > μὲν we will discuss this later (Chap 19 12-17) , but now , since we have agreed that there are Genera , εις ταῦτα VOTEPOV ; δ᾽ νυν ETEL συγκεχωρηκαμεν καὶ ELVA YEVN and even more that there are also Causes οἵ The Ousia and are Causes and Structured καὶ προσετι KOU αρχας TNS OVOLAG καὶ αἀρχας καὶ OVVOECIV In Another Way (Super-Essentially) . Therefore first of all , it must be stated how many Genera ETEPOV TPOTOV : πρῶτον AEKTEOV TOGO yevy we say there are and how we distinguish Selves from each other and not bring Them under One , λέγομεν και πῶς διίσταμὲεν ALTA απ’ CAANAMV KOLODY MYOWEV υπ᾽ εν, just as if they came together by mere chance and created some one thing ; although it would be ὥσπερ συνελθοντα εκ τύυχῆς καὶ πεποιηκοτὰ εν TL: καῖτοι much more Elegantly-Reasonable if They came together under One. Thus on the one hand, if TOAAG εὐλογώτερον vo’ εν. τε μεν ει it was possible for All of Them to be Species of The Being , along with the many individuals Ὧν οἷον ONAVTA ElVOL ELON τοῦ οντος καὶ τὰ αἀτομα that are subsequent to Them , and there be nothing outside of These , then perhaps it might be εφεξης τοῦτοις καὶ μηδὲν EFM τουτῶν, 1006 αν ἣν possible to create in this way. Whereas on the other hand , seeing that such an arrangement ποιεῖν οὔτως. δε ἐπειδὴ τοιαῦυτη TN θεσις is the abolition of Ousia Herself —for the species would not be species , nor generally EOTLV ἀαναῖρεσις αὔὕὔτης πγὰρ THEL6N οὔδε EOTAL εἰδὴ , 00d’ ολῶς would there be many under one , but all would be one , nor would there be an other or others

πολλαὺ vO’ EV, αλλαπαντὰ EV, UN OVT@V ETEPOD ETEPM@V outside of that one . For how could The One come to be Many , so as to generate species , unless €FW EKELVOD τοῦς EVOG : YAP πὼς KV TO EV EYEVETO πολλοὶ, MOTE καὶ γεννησαῖ E157 , εἰ μη there was something else besides Self ? For One could not by Itself be Many , unless something Ὧν τι QAAO παρ᾽ στο; γὰρ οὐ εαύτω πολλα, ξεἰμη τις

were to cut It up as if It were a magnitude ; but even so The Cutter would thus be Another . κερματιζει ως μξγεθος : ἀλλα καὶ TO κερματιζον οὐτῶς ετερον. But if Self is going to cut or generally to divide , then It will be divided before the dividing . δ᾽ EL αὐτο κερματιζει ολῶς SLAIPNOEL , EOTOHL SINPNLEVOV TPO TOD διαιρεθηναῖι. Therefore , on the one hand , for this and for many other reasons , we must abandon the notion of OvV μεν ταῦτη καὶ δι’ πολλα AAAD αποστατεον του “one genus” , and also because it is not possible to take each and every thing at all and call it “Ἐν γένος, καὶ OTL οὐχ OLOVANOBEVEKAOTOV OTLODV τε λεγειῖν either Being or Ousia . Whereas on the other hand , if one does call it being , then one will assign ον 7 οὔὐσιαν. δε ει τις λεὲεγοι ον, φησει the being accidentally , as if one were to call The Ousia white (Phaedrus 2470) ; for one TO σῃυμβεβήηκεναι, OLOVEL AEYOL τὴν OVOLAV λευκὸν : yop does not speak as if She were white (Pure/Colorless) . Ov λξγει OmEp λευκὸν

3. Surely then on the one hand , we say that there are numerous Genera , and numerous , én μεν λέγομεν etvor Πλειῶ καὶ πλειω not by accident . Is it not the case then , that They arise from One. Or, even if They arise from OVD κατα TOXNV . OVKOUDV ad’ EVOG. ἢ. καὶ ει ao’ One , but not one that has been predicated according to Selves in That which Is , nothing keeps evoc, δὲ οὐ κατηγοροσυμενου κατ’ αὐτῶν εν TMELVOL, οὐδὲν κωλύει each Self from being a separate Genus by not having the same form as another . Take notice then EKAGTOV αὐτο εἰναι χῶρις γένος οὐχ OV opoeideg αλλ. ap’ οὐν on the one hand , is This One which is Outside of The Genera which have come into Being from μεν τοῦτο εξωθεν τῶν γενῶν γενομενῶν Their Cause , while on the other hand , It is not predicated by whatever the others are ? Yes , It TO αἴτιον, de μη κατηγοροῦυμενον EV TH TL τῶν CAAMV εστιν ; μεν TO Is Outside ; for The One Is Beyond , so as not to be numbered with Those that are Generated , eM :γὰρ TOEV επεκεινα, WC αν μη συναριθμοῦμενον τοῖς γένεσιν, if indeed The Others exist through Self , which are on Equal Terms with Each other in regards to ει τὰ AAG δι᾽ ALTO, α εἰναι ETLONG αλληλοις εις being Genera . And how is it that That One is not numbered with Them ? Since we are looking το γένη. KOU πῶς εκεῖνο οὐ συναριθμηταῖι ; nN ζητοῦμεν for Beings , not for That which is Beyond Beings . So on the one hand , so much for This One . TH OVTA, OD το ἐπέκεινα. ουν μεν OVTWG τοῦτο: but on the other hand , what about The One which is numbered with The Others ? About which δε τι το σσυναριθμοσῦυμενον ; εφ᾽ οὐ someone might also wonder, how It is numbered with Those of whom It Is The Cause . If on the τις αν και θαυμάσειεν, πῶς συναριθμοσῦυμενον τοις OLTLATOLG . εἰ one hand , Self and The Others were under one genus, then this case is absurd ; but if on the other μεν QVTO καὶ τὰ αλλα υφ’ ενγενος, OTOTOV > eu δὲ

hand , It is numbered with Those of which It Is The Cause , as if Self were The Genus and The σσυναριθμειται οις αἴτιον, ὡς ALTO το γένος καὶ τὰ Others were Subsequent and The Subsequent are Different from Self , and Self is not predicated αλλα εφεξζης --καὶ τα εφεξῆς εστι διαφορα προς αὐτο, καὶ οὐ κατηγορειται of Selves as Their Genus nor anything else related to Selves then They must also be Genera, if αὐτῶν ὡς γένος οὐδ’ τι αλλο KOT’? αὐτῶν -ὀ CAVAYKN καὶ εἰναι γενη They have others under Themselves . For if you were to start walking , then walking would EXOVTH vo αὐτὰ. γαρεισυ eyevvac το βαδιζειν, το βαδιζειν av not be classed under you as its genus ; and if there was nothing else before self as its genus , but ovde NV vTO σε YEVOG : Καὶ εἰ ἣν UNSEV ἀλλο προ αὕὔτου ὡς αὐτοῦ γενος, δε there were walking things after self , then walking would be a genus among The Beings . But TO μεταῦυτο, το βαδιζεῖιν αἀνὴν γένος εν τοιςοῦυσιν. δε generally , The One must not even be asserted to be The Cause of The Others , but perhaps They OAS TO εν οὐδὲ OOATEOV ELVAL αἴτιον TOLC CAAOIC, AAA’ τισῶὼς are more like Parts of Self and more like Elements of Self , and are All One Nature (Rep 540a) OLOV HEPN αὐτου καὶ οἷον στοιχειὰ αὐτου KOLTOAVTO μῖαν φυσιν that has been divided into Parts by our after-thoughts , but Self Is , by a Wonderful Power μεριζομεένην ημῶν ταῖς επινοιαιῖς, δε αὐτο ELVAL VIO θαυμαστῆς SLVALLEMS One-in-All , both by Coming-into-Light Many and by Coming-to-Be Many , such as when Self EV εἰςπαντα, καὶ φαϊνομεένον πολλα καὶ γίνομενον TOAAGM , οἷον οταν is-in-Motion according to The Full-Intellect of Her Nature , Self makes The One be not-One κινήθη KATH τὸ TMOADVODV τῆς φυσεῶς, ποιεῖν TO EV EOVOL LN EV, and such as when we bring forward parts of Self to posit each of these parts “as one” and TE OLOV TNLAG προφεροντας μοιρας αὐτοῦ τιθεσθαι EKAGTOV ταῦτας EV καὶ ignorantly call it a “genus” , because we do not Know The Whole At-Once , but by bringing αγνοουντας AEYELV YEVOG OTL [UN ELOOLEV ολον αμα ,αλλὰα προ-- them forward , part by part , we join selves together again . But we are unable to contain Selves πφεροντὰς KOATOAMEPOG σσυναπτομεν αὐτὰ TAALV , οὐ δυναμενοι KATEXELV αὐτὰ for a long time since They hasten to Selves . For which reason we let them go again into ETL πολὺν χρονον OTEVSOVTA προς HLTA . διο μεθιεμεν παλῖν εις The Whole and we allow them to become One, or rather to Be One . But perhaps , these matters TO OAOV καὶ EMLEV YEVEOOAL εν, SE LOAAOV ELVOL εν. AAA LOWS ταῦτα will be clearer when those also become known , by grasping how many Genera there are . For EOTAL σαφεστερα KOAKELVMV EYVMOLEVOV, λαβῶμεν οποσὰ τὰ γένη NV : yap in this way we will also know how They are . But since we should not just make statements

OVTM καὶ TO πῶς. αλλ’ Ener SEL μὴ ATOOAGELS AEYOVTA in our discourse , but also be impelled to Intellection and come to an Understanding of what Aeyelv , GAA καὶ ιεναιϊ νοησιν και εις εννοιᾶὰν τῶν is being said , one must do it in the following way . λεγομεένῶν, ποιήητεον Wot .

4. If we wanted to see The Nature of Body , such as what is The Nature of The Body of Self Et εβουλομεθα 1L5ELV την OVOLV σώματος, οἷον TL ἐστιν φυσις TOD σώματος αὐτου in This (Micro) Whole ,would we not know It thoroughly by a certain one of The Parts of Self ,

EVTOSE TH OAW , AP’ OV KOTOAWABOVTEG ETL τινος = TOV LEPM@V AVTOD , such as by a stone , since there is on the one hand , that which functioned as The Under-Lying- οἷον eMLALBOD WG EOTL μεν το WS πτυπο--

Reality of Self , and on the other hand , the Quantity , Magnitude and Quality of Self , such as

πκειμενον αὐτου, δε TO ONOGOV , TO μέγεθος, TO SE ὁποῖον αὐτου, OLOV Its Color , and by looking upon every other body we might say , that on the one hand , there is TO χρῶμα, καὶ επὶιπαντος CAAOD σώματος αν ELMOMEV, ὡς μεν EOTLV such Ousia in The Nature of The Body , whereas on the other hand , that there is Quantity , OLOV OVOLH EV TH φύσει TO σώματος de TO EOTL ποσον, and Quality , and that on the one hand , They exist All Together , whereas on the other hand , δὲ TO TOLOV , μεν πανταομου, δε They are Divided by The Logos into Three , and so would The Three be One in that Body ? διαιρεθεντα τῷ AOYM εἰςτριὰα, καὶ av τὰ τρια εν σῶμα ; But if Motion was also present as a Natural Part of the constitution of Self , and if we were δὲ εἰ κινησις καὶ TAPNV συμφυτος TH συστάσει αὐτου, καὶ AV also to count this , then The Four would also be One, and so the one body would be Completed συνηριθμήησαμεν TOVTO , TH TETTAPH αν καὶ NV εν, καὶ TO EV TO σῶμα απηρτιστο by All the predicates in regards to The One and The Nature of Self . Surely then , in the same απασι τοις προς τοὲν καὶ τὴν φυσιν αὐτου. δη TO QVTOV way , seeing that The Logos is about Intelligible Ousia and The Genera and Causes that are τροπον, ἐπειδὴ OAOYOG περι VONTNS οὐὔσιας καὶ TOV YEVOV καὶ ἀρχῶν EOTLV There , one must Remove the generation within bodies and the knowing through sense EKEL , XPT] QHEAOVTAG τῆν γένεσιν EV τοις σώμασι καὶ την κατανοησιν δι᾽ αἱσ-- perception and magnitudes -—for it is also in this way that there is a separation and a standing- πθησεῶς καὶ TH WEyEON -γὰρ και OVTO TOELVOL χῶρις καὶ το διεστη-- -apart from each other-__to Grasp a Certain Intelligible Under-Lying Reality and That which —KOTO OT αλληλῶων-- λαβεῖν τινὰ vontny ᾽πυποστασιν καὶ ὡς Is Truly also More-One. In which it is also remarkable how That which Is One in this way OV ἀληθῶς καὶ μάλλονεν. εν καὶ τοθαῦμα πῶς το εν OVTOSG is Many and One. For on the one hand, in the case of bodies it has been agreed that the same πολλὰ KOLEV. γὰρ μὲν ETL τῶν σώματῶν συγκεχώρηται TO αὐτο body is One and Many; for the same body can be divided to infinity, and its color is other from ELVOL EV καὶ πολλὰ : YAP TO AVTO εις απειρα, καὶ TO χρῶμα ETEPOV καὶ its shape ; for they are indeed separate. On the other hand , if someone were to take One Soul , TO ἕτερον σχημα : γὰρ καὶ χωριζεται. δε ει τις λαβοι μιὰν ψυχὴν that exists without extension/interval/dimension , without magnitude , Supremely Simple , as αδιαστατον αἀμεγεθη απλούστατον ὡς She will appear at The First Insight of The Understanding Mind . How could one hope to find δοξει τῇ πρώτη επιβολη τῆς SLAVOLAG , TMC αν τις EATLOELE ευρήσειν that She was Many again in turn ? And furthermore that one would have thought that one would πολλὰ παλιν QD ; KQLTO νομῖσας have finished in this , since one had divided the living being into body and soul , and on the one τελευταν εἰς τοῦτο, OTE διηρξιτο TO ζῶον εἰς σῶμα καὶ ψυχην, καὶ μὲν hand , had found the body to be multiform and composite and various , and was confident that σῶμα πολύυειδες καὶ σύνθετον καὶ TOLKLAOV, εθαρρει WS one had found that on the other hand , The Soul was Simple , and could rest from their journey EVPWV δε τὴν ψυχὴν ATAODVV και ἀαναπαὈυσασθαῖ τῆς TOPELAG by arriving at ‘the source’. Now then , seeing that in as much as this Soul has been delivered to us ελθὼν EN’ OPXNV. τοινυν ETELONTMEP TAVTNV τὴν WOXNV TPOEXELPLGON ἡμῖν from The Intelligible Place , as in the former discussion the body was , from the perceptible , εκ TOV VONTOD TOTOD, WE EKEL TO σῶμα εκ TOV CLOONTOD , let us grasp , how this One is Many , and how The Many are One, not a one composed out of

AABALEV , πῶς τοῦτο TO εν εστι πολλα, καὶ πὼς τὰ πολλα EOTLV EV , οὐ EV συνθετον EK many , but One Nature which is Many ; for by This having been grasped and having become πολλῶν, αλλα μιὰ φυσις TOAAG : γὰρ SLA TODTOD λήφθεντος καὶ γενομένου clear , we maintained that The Truth about The Genera among The Real Being would also φανεροῦ εφαμὲν τὴν CANOELAV περι τῶν γενῶν τῶν EV τῷ οντι KOU

Be Clear .

ἐσεσθαιῖ φανεραν.

5. But first one must take this to heart ; that seeing that bodies , each and every one of them de Πρῶτον ενθυμήτεον τοῦτο , ὡς ENELON τὰ σώματα , εκαστον AVLTOV are many such as those of living-beings and of plants , and by their colors and shapes and sizes EOTL MOAAM οἷόν τῶν ζώων καὶ TOV φυτῶν, καὶ χρώμασι καὶ σχημασι καὶ μεγεθεσι and by the forms of their parts and in other different ways , yet All come from One, for they will καὶ = ELOEOL μερῶν καὶ αλλο GAAOOL, SE TA παντα ερχεταῖ EF ενος, either come from One which is in every way and altogether One, or from One that is More One ἥξει εξ evoc (Rep 508C1 )παντη TOVTMS EVOS μεν μαλλον ενος than such as that which arises from Self, so that It also has More Being than that which comes οἷον το εξ αὐτου, ὥστε καὶ μάλλον οντος το γέενο- into existence —for by as much as the departure is from One , to that degree is the departure from πμενον —yap 00M ηαποστασας προς εν, TOOW καὶ προς Βείηρ-- since then they are one , but not in this way One , by “being” One-In-Every-Way ον-- EMELODV HEVEVOG ,δεοῦχ OVTM EVOS, ὡς παντη or One Self —for This One would not have made a separate Multitude— it remains that they Be ALTOEV -γὰρ ανοῦ ENOLEL διεστηκος πληθος- λειπεται εἰναι from Plurality which is One. But that which makes was The Soul . Accordingly then , εκ πλήθους evog . S€ τὸ ποιοῦν ἣν ψυχή: Opa This is a Plurality which is One . What then ? Is This Plurality The Reason Sources of τοῦτο πλῆθος εν. τιοῦυν; TO πλῆθος οἱ λογοι those that come into being ? Take notice then , is Self one aspect , but The Reason Principles τῶν YLVOLEVOV ᾿; Op’ ODV αὐτο μὲν ἀλλο de οἱ λογοι another aspect ? Or is Self both Logos and Leader of The Reason Sources , and so αλλοι ; αὕτὴ καὶ AOYOS καὶ κεφαλᾶῖον τῶν λογῶν., καὶ The Reason Principles are The Activity/Energy of Self when She is Active According to Ousia ; οἱ λογοι EVEPYELOL αὐτῆς ενεργουσης κατ᾽ οὐὔσιαν: but The Ousia is The Potential-Power of The Reason Sources . Surely then , on the one hand , δε OVOLA δυναμις τῶν AOYOV . én μεν it has thus been demonstrated that it is from that which She makes in others that This One OVTM SEdELYLEVOV εξ ῶν ποῖει εἰς αλλα TO τοῦτο EV is Many . But on the other hand , what if She was not making anything , but one was to take Self TOAAQ . δ᾽ τι εἰ μη TOLOL , αλλατις λαμβανοι αὐτὴν as not making by ascending to That Part of Self which does not make Will one not also find μη ποιουσαν AVABAIVOV εἰς TO αὕτης UN ποιουν; οὔ καὶ εὈυρήησει Many Powers Here ? For on the one hand , everyone would agree that Self exists ; whereas πολλας δυναμεῖις ἐενταυθα ; YAP HEV παςτις αν συγχωρήσειεν KUTV ELVALL : on the other hand , is this then , the same as saying that a stone exists ? Or not the same . δε ει APA ταῦτον ὡς ελξγεν εἰ καὶ λιθον ειναῖ οὐ ταῦτον. But nevertheless in regards to the stone , there also existence was not solely existence , but being

αλλ᾽ OLS επι του ALBOD KQKEL τὸ ειναὶ «TV OD TO ELVOL , HAA’ εἰναι that stone ; so also here , existence for Soul includes being Soul , along with the existence . Take TO ALOW : OVTM καὶ ἐνταῦθα TO ELVAL ψυχῆ EXEL TO εἰναι WOXT] META TO εἰναι. ap’ notice then , is the existence one thing , but that which remains another , which Contributes to

ουν tTOELVOL αλλο, δὲ τὸ λοιπὸν ἀλλο, O σῃυμ-

The Completion of The Ousia of The Soul , and so on the one hand , there is That which Is , ππλήροι τὴν OVOLAV THV WOXNV , και μεν το ον, whereas on the other hand , does The Difference make The Soul ? Or is The Soul on the one

δε διαφορὰ ποῖει τὴν WOXNV; NWoYn μεν hand , a certain Being , but not in the way that a human being is white , but only like a certain τι OV , HEVTOL οὐ οὐτῶς ὡς αἀνθρῶπος λεῦκος, AAA’ μονον ὡς τις

Ousia. Thus on the other hand , this is the same as saying that , The Soul does not

OVOLO : δε τοῦτο ταῦτον τῶ μη

Possess That which She Possesses External/Outside οἵ Her Ousia . (Thus It Is Innate . jfb) EXEL 0 EXEL εξωθεν τῆς οὐὔσιας.

6. Accordingly then , on the one hand , She does not Possess Her Ousia from The Outside , AA’ apa μεν οὐκ EXEL εαὕύτου OVOLAG της εξωθεν, in order for one part of Her Exist through the Existence , but another Exist through This Way ; wa μεν κατὰ τοειναι, δὲ ELVOL κατα TO τοιονδε ; for if She were to Exist in a way Such as This , and This Way were External , then in that case αλλ’ EL TO εἰναι κατα TOLOVSE καὶ TO TOLOVOE εξωθεν, She would not Be Ousia according to The Whole Soul , but in a certain way , and thus Part οὐ EOTAL οὔσια καθο TO OAOV ψυχῃ. ἀλλὰ KATA TL , καὶ μερος of Self would Be Ousia , but not The Whole Ousia. Then what will The Existence Be to Self QVTNSG OVOLA , αλλ’ OD TO OAOV OVDOLMA . ENELTA TL TO ELVOL EOTOAL αὐτῇ apart from the others from that of a stone ? Or must This Existence of Self Be Within , such as QVED τῶν OAAMV n λιθος; SEL τοῦτο TO ELVAL MVTNS ELVOL EVTOG οἷον Her Source and Cause (Phaedrus 245D) , or rather must It Be Al! that Self Is ; and thus TNYNV καὶ ἀρχὴν δὲ μάλλον πανταὰ OOM MAVTN : καὶ TOLVDV It must be Life ; and The Existence and The Life are both-together One. Take notice then , Conv: καὶ TO Elval KOLTHVCMNV συνάμφῳ εν. Op’ ODV Is It One in this way , like One Logos ? Or is The Underlying-Reality One , whereas It Is One εν οὐτῶς WCSEVa AOYOV; TO VIMOKELMEVOV εν δε εν so that It Is also Two , or even More , All that The Soul Primarily Is . Therefore , She Is Ousia OVTO WG AD SLO η KOLTAELW, τὰ οσα WOXN πρώτα EOTIV. ODV οὔσια and Life , or She Contains Life . But if She Contains , then That which Contains does so By Self καὶ Can .n exe Conv. αλλ’ er exer : το EXOV καθ᾽ αὐτο not in Life , and Life is not in Ousia ; but if one does not have the other , then one must say that οὐκ εν ζώη, TE ζῶη οὐκ EV ODOLO : CAA’ ει θάτερον UN EXEL TO ETEPOV, AEKTEOV both are One . Or rather One and Many and as Many as , come to Light in The One ;

OUdM@ εν. in] EV καὶ πολλα καὶ TOOMVTHA , OOH ELMOLVETOL EV TH EVI : and One By-Itself , but Many in relation to the others ; and so on the one hand , She is One καὶ EV EALVT@, δὲπολλὰ προς TAMGAAM: καὶι μεν εν

Being , but on the other hand , It makes Itself Many in “their” Motion as it were ; and so

ον δε ποιοιν EXAVTO πολλα EV αὐτὰ τὴ KLVNOEL οἷον : καὶ δὲ

She is One Whole , such as when She undertakes to Contemplate Itself , She is Many .

EV OAOV , OLOV ETLYELPODV θεώρειν εαῦτο πολλὰ Just as if The Being cannot bear Being One By Itself when It is capable of Being All that ὥσπερ γὰρ TO OV οὐκ ἀνέχεται εν εαῦτου δυναμενου εἴναι TAVTA OOH She Is . Thus Her Self Contemplation is The Cause of The Many coming to Light ; in order εστιν, SE TN ALTO HEWPLA αἴτια του πολλα φανηναι , Wa that She may Intellect . For if She were to come to Light as One , then She would not be

vonon : Yap €Xv φανη εν Intellecting , since She would already Be That (One) .

αλλ’ δή εστιν εκεινο

7. What then , are The Members Seen in The Soul , and what Quantity ? Since we find Tiva οὐν EOTL TO EVOPMLEVAL καὶ ποσα ; ἐπειδὴ EVPOLEV Ousia and Life At-Once in The Soul —and This Ousia is Common to every soul , whereas OVOLAV καὶ CONV UAH EV ψυχῆ —KOL TOVTO OVOLA KOLVOV επι πάσης ψυχῆς, δε Life is also Common , but Life is also in Intellect—_ by also introducing The Intellect of This Con καὶ κοινον, deCan καὶ εν νῶ- καὶ EMELOMYAYOVTES τὸν νοῦν τουτου Life , we shall thus posit Their Motion in Common to All Life as One Certain Genus . Then τὴν Conv, θησομεθα τὴν KIVHOLV KOLVOV ἐπὶ TAONn Con εν τι yevoc. δε we shall posit Ousia and Motion , by being The Primary Life in Two Genera . For even if θησομεθα OVOLAV καὶ KIVNOLV οὐσὰν τὴν πρώτην CONV δυο YEVN. γὰρ καὶ EL They are One , Selves are separated by The Intellection , by finding The One , not-One . εν , αὐτὰ χωριζει τῇ νοήσει EVPOV οεν OUDXEV: Otherwise , it would not have been possible to separate Selves . But also observe in others n αν οὐ ηδυνηθη χῶρισαι . δὲ καὶ Opa εν αλλοις The Motion or The Life that are clearly separated from The Existence , even if it is not in The τὴν κινησιν τὴν CONV σαφῶς χωριζομενην TOD ElVOL , KOLEL μὴ eEVT Genuine Existence , but in the shadow which also has the same name as That which Is . For αληθινὼ ELVOL, ἀλλὰ TH OKLO καὶ TO ομωώνυμὼ TOD ειναι. γὰρ just as in the image of a human-being many things are left-out , and especially The Most ὡς EV TN ELKOVL TOD ἀνθρώπου πολλὰ ελλειπει καὶ μαλῖστα TO κυρ-- Important One ; The 116, so also in the things perceived by sense existence is shadow of πῖον ,. ζώη, OVT καὶ εν τοις αἰσθητοῖς το Elva σκια That which Is , by being separated from That which Most-Excellently Is , which was Life τοῦ ELVOL QONnPNHLEVOV του μαλιστα ειναι, ο ἢν Con in The Archetype . But then , from this source we shall have the separating of That which Lives EV TO APXETLTM. αλλ᾽ουν EVTEDOEV EOXOLEV χωώρισαι του ζην from that which exists and that which exists from That which Lives. Thus on the one hand , το ElVOL καὶ τοῦ εἰναι το ζην. δη μεν there are many species and genera ; but on the other hand , Motion is not to be arranged under OVTOG πολλα ELON καὶ γενος: δε κινησις οὔτε τακτεὰ VTO That which Is nor over That which Is , but Along-with That which Is ; for It is found in Self , TOOV οὔτ’ ETL TWOVTL , CAAM LETH TOV OVTOG, εὐθεισα EV αὐτῷ but not as in Its Under-lying Existence ; for It Is The Energy/Activity of Self and neither of οὐχ ὡς EV ᾽πυποκειμενῶ : γὰρ EVEPYELOL αὐτου καὶ οὔδε-- Them exists without The Other , other than in our after-thoughts , and so The Two Natures are

πτερὸν QVED TOV ETEPOD n ETLVOLO , Καὶ αἱ dv0 OvOEIG One ; for It Is Active Energy , and not Potential-Power. And if however , you take either of

μια : γὰρ TO OV EVEPYELA , KAL OD δυνάμει. καὶ εἰ μεντοι, λάβοις εκα- of them separately , Motion will come to Light in That which Is and That which Is in The πτερὸν YOPIC, κινησις φανήσεται εν TH οντι KOL TOOV ἔν τῇ Motion , and for example , in regards to The One Being , Each One taken separately contains κινησει, καὶ οἷον ETL TOV EVOG OVTOG = EKALTEPOV X MPLS ELYE The Other . But nevertheless , Discursive Reason maintains that Each Idea is Dual and a θατερον, AAA’ OLAS SLAVOLOL φησι EKkaTEPOV ειδος δυο καὶ Twofold One . But Motion comes to Light in relation to That which Is not by changing διπλοῦν εν. SE KLVNOEMS φανεισης περι τοον οὔκ εξιστασης

The Nature of That , but rather as if by making That Which Is , Perfect , and if such

τὴν OVOLV EKELVOD , δ᾽ μαλλον OLOV EV ποιουσῆς TW εἰναι TEAELOV, TE τῆς τοιαῦτης

a Nature were to remain in Motion in this way (that is , if someone were not to introduce Rest , QVOEWG μενουσῆς κινεῖσθαι EV TH OVTO , ει τις μη επεισαγοι στασιν,

who would be even more absurd than one who did not grant that there was Motion) for The

αν ειῇΏΉ ατοπῶώτερος του μη διδοντος κινησιν : γὰρ Reflection and Intellection of Rest comes readier to mind in regards to The Being than that of EVVOLA καὶ VONOLG τῆς στάσεως TPOXELPOTEPA περι το ον

The Being in regards to Motion ; for “That which is the same and in the same way” (Soph 248) τῆς OVONG περι τὴν KIVNOLV: γὰρ TO ταῦτα (Plural) καὶ KATA ὡσαύτως also have One Logos There . Surely then , let Rest also Be One Genus Other than of Motion , καὶ EXOV EVA AOYOV EKEL . δὴ ἔστω στασις καὶ OV EV YEVOG ETEPOV κινησεῶς, where It would also appear to be Its Opposite . But since It is other than That which 15, OTOV OV καὶ φανειη evavtlov . δὲ ὡς ἕτερον TOD OVTOG , could be made clear in many ways and for which reason , if It were The Same as That which Is , αν εἰΏ δηλον πολλαχῇ KOU διοτι , EL ξιῆ ταῦτον τῷ οντι, then It could not be more The Same as That which Is than Motion . For why then on the one ov μαλλον ταῦτο TH οντι τῆς κινησεῶς. γὰρ τι μεν hand , could Rest be The Same as That which Is , while on the other hand , Motion could not , δια στάσις ταῦτον TH οντι δε κινησις Ov, when Motion is The Life of Self and The Active Energy of The Self of Ousia and Her Very τις Con avtov και EVEPYELA τῆς αὐτου OVOLAG καὶ TOD Being ? But just as we separated The Motion of Self as being The Same and not The Same as ELVOL ; AAA’ ὥσπερ εχώριζομεν τὴν κινησιν AVTOD ὡς TAVTOV TE καὶ OD ταῦτον Self , and we spoke of both as Two and in turn as One , so also in the same way we shall separate QVTO καὶ EAEYOHEV ALLOW ὡς δυο καὶ OD εν, καὶ TOV HUTOV τροπὸν χωριοῦμεν The Rest from Self and in turn not separate Rest from Self , by separating It to such an extent τὴν στάσιν αὐτου καὶ AV οὔ XMPLODLEV χώριζοντες τοσοῦτον from The Intellect , so as to posit It as another Genus among The Real Beings . TOV® «ςφοσον θεσθαι αλλο γένος εν τοις οὐσιν Or , if we were to bring The Rest and That which Is in every way into One , εἰ GVVAYOILEV τὴν στάσιν καὶ TO OV παντη εις ἕν by saying that there was not any difference at all between them , and if we were to bring together AEYOVTEG undev διαφερειν undaun τε συναξομεν That which Is with The Motion in the same way , then if we were to bring The Rest and The


το ον τῇ κινήσει ὡσαύυτῶς, τὴν στασιν καὶ τὴν Motion into The Same by means of That which Is , then Motion and Rest will be One for us . κινησιν εἰς TAVTOV SLO μεσοῦυ TOV OVTOG , καὶ κινησις καὶ στασις εσταῖ EV ἡμῖν.

8. Then These Three Genera (Being-Motion-Rest) must be posited , if indeed Intellect Intellects

AAA ταῦτα τρια χρη τιθεσθαι, εἴπερ OVOLG VOEL Each One separately ; but It Intellects and posits Them At-Once , if indeed It Intellects , and EKAOTOV YXMpIc : de νοει καὶ TLONOLV Qua, δξιπερ νοεῖ ,καὶι They Exist , if indeed They have been Intellected . For on the one hand, in regards to the

εστιν, εἴπερ νενοηται . yap μεν το existence of those who are involved with matter ; the existence of these is not in Intellect ; Elva Og ἔστι μετα VANS, TOELVOL τούτῶν οὐκ EV TO VO: but on the other hand , if Those who Are Immaterial have been Intellected , This is Their δ᾽ ει α αὐλα νενοῆται τοῦτο εστιν αὕὔτοις

Existence . But you must also See Pure Intellect and gaze at Self attentively , not by seeing Self το ειναι. de καὶ τδὲ καθαρον VODV καὶ βλεψον εἰς αὐτον ATEVLGaG μὴ δεδορκῶς with these eyes . Surely then you See The Hearth of Ousia and a Sleepless Light in Self TOVTOLG ομμᾶσι. δη ορᾶς EOTLAV οὔσιας καὶ ανῦπνον φῶς EV αὐτῷ and how They Stand in Self and how They Stand apart , and Be All Together ; Abiding Life καὶ ὡς ἕστηκεν EV αὐτῷ καὶ ὡς διέστηκεν καὶ οντὰ OLOD μένουσαν ζῴην and Intellection whose Activity is not directed towards that which will be , but to That which νοησιν EVEPYOVOAV ODK εις TO μελλον, AAA’ ELG TO Is Now, or rather “Now and Always Now”, and That which Is